Archive for the ‘2) Legacy of Founding Fathers’ Category

RENEWING AMERICAN LEADERSHIP  CORE DOCTRINE – Part 2 (of 6)
II.    The Remarkable Legacy The Founding Fathers Constructed From  Antiquity, Christianity, And The English Constitutional Experience

The Nearly Fatal Experiments With Socialism At Jamestown And Plymouth.

The ideas that would later be labeled “capitalism” and “socialism” have been feuding in America  since its inception. The results of those early contests were decisive and fateful. Both the English  colonies at Jamestown and Plymouth began as experiments in communal living. They both were  nearly destroyed by that policy. But when the colonists were forced by necessity to turn to  private property and individual initiative, they ignited an economic and cultural boom that has  continued to this day.

Jamestown

The royal charter for the first continuous English settlement on the new continent was granted to  a group called The Virginia Company, which founded Jamestown in 1607. As historian Paul  Johnson recounts in his History of the American People, the crown had nothing to do with  financing England’s first colonies. Investors risked their own money in return for grants of land.i But with no knowledge of the land awaiting them, the first settlers the investors sent over were  more “gentlemen-adventurers.” than farmers. Most were hoping to find gold or other quick  riches as the Spanish had in South America.

The men were divided into threes—a third to start the farm, a third to build the fort, and a third to  head off into the woods to look for gold. Naturally, everybody slipped away to hunt for gold, and  neglected the fort and farm.ii Even though the territory was particularly fertile, with a coastline  and abundant game, the first settlers weren’t at all interested in farming because they weren’t  farmers. And even if they had been, everything they produced went into the communal company  store, from which everybody received the same rations, without regard for how much they had  contributed.iii

The results were disastrous. In the first six months, 66 of the initial 104 settlers died of starvation  and disease. After a second group of 500 settlers arrived in 1609, 440 died within the first six  months.iv Finally in 1611 “High Marshall” Sir Thomas Dale arrived and immediately diagnosed  the problem. It was obvious to him that the men were lazy because they had no investment in the  land—they had no private property. So without asking permission from the colony’s  shareholders in England, Dale gave three acres of land to the earlier settlers and something less  to the later arrivals. They would be able to enjoy all the profits from their land without  contributing to the communal store, except for a lump sum annual tax of 2.5 barrels of corn.v

The colonists were thrilled. They immediately began clearing their land, plowing their ground,  planting, dunging, and watering—whatever they could to have their own food for the winter. By  fall, the storehouse was full, thanks to the two-barrel tax, and the people were alive.vi They soon  learned how to cultivate tobacco and were exporting it by 1616.vii

In 1619, the Virginia Company granted the Jamestown colonists “the rights of Englishmen,” and  on July 30, 1619, the first General Assembly of Virginia met for a week at Jamestown Church.viii

Self-Government and Communism in Plymouth Plantation

The second English colony was led by group of Puritan Nonconformists who were fleeing the  “Romish” teachings and governance of the Church of England. The Virginia Company granted  them an 80,000 acre grant of land and authority to erect a system of self-government with wide  powers.ix

Before they landed in 1620, the 41 families aboard the Mayflower drew up a remarkable social  compact based upon the original Biblical covenant between God and the Israelites. It also  reflected early 17th century social-contract theory, which was later to receive notable expression  in Thomas Hobbes’ Leviathan (1655) and John Locke’s Treatise of Civil Government (1690). x What was significant about this particular contract was that it was not between a servant and a  master, or a people and a king, but among a group of like-minded individuals, with God as a  witness and symbolic co-signatory.xi One of their leaders, William Bradford, later wrote a
history, Of Plymouth Plantation, in which he first referred to them as “Pilgrims.”xii

Unfortunately, the Virginia Company in London had not yet learned the lessons of their  Jamestown venture. They continued to require the Pilgrims, as a condition of their transport, to  organize and share communally for the first seven years of their habitation. They were all  expected to work the fields together, and food was to be divided from the common pool by  family.xiii

Consequently, a famine hit the colony for two years. People ate rats, horses, dogs and cats.xiv Governor Bradford recounted the scene in his autobiography:
For this community [common ownership]…was found to breed much confusion and  discontent and retard much employment that would have been to their benefit and  comfort. For the young men, that were most  able and fit for labor and service, did  repine that they should spend their time and strength to work for other men’s wives and children without any recompense… And  for men’s wives to be commanded to do  service for other men, as dressing their meat,  washing their clothes, etc., they deemed  it a kind of slavery, neither could many husbands well brook it…And would have been  worse if they had been men of another  condition. Let none object, this is men’s  corruption … God in His wisdom saw another course fitter for them.xv After another unfruitful harvest  in 1623, Governor Bradford consulted with the community, and  found an approach that would be more successful. He describes this change in his  History of  Plymouth Plantation: So they began to think how they might raise as much corn as they could, and obtain a better  crop than they had done, that they might not still thus languish in misery. At length, after  much debate of things, the Governor (with the advice of the chiefest amongst them) gave  way that they should set corn every man for his own particular, and in that regard trust to  themselves; in all other thing to go on in the general way as before. And so assigned to  every family a parcel of land, according to the proportion of their number, for that end …xvi

This had very good success for it made all hands very industrious, so as much more corn  was planted than otherwise could have been. By this time harvest was come, and instead of  famine, now God gave them plenty, and the face of things was changed, to the rejoicing of  the hearts of manyxvii

The lesson was clear: If the amount of thought and labor a person invests in his work has no  effect on the return he earns, most people will contribute little or nothing, and the community  will be the poorer for imposing such a system. On the other hand, when private property is  secure and people are free to work for themselves, prosperity follows.
The abject failures of the initial socialist experiments in both Jamestown and Plymouth,  combined with the spectacular success the very same people achieved when they were allowed to  work for the betterment of their own families became the “American system” that was to change  the world for the better.

Transplanted Visions and Dreams

The European Impetus

The thirteen colonies that formed the United States in 1789 had developed separately over a 182year period, each with its own distinct history and people, drawn from a wide variety of European immigrant groups. As Europe’s nation-states had emerged and sorted themselves out in various wars in the 16th and  17th centuries, they had attempted to build cohesive societies among their subjects. Solidarity  with the monarch was expected. Mystical theories of birthright, based on “blood and soil,” were  propounded to try to unify diverse ethnic and religious factions into unified, and cohesive states.  The European monarchs of the early modern period controlled the state churches in their realms through their power to appoint bishops and other offices. There was no separation of church and  state. European rulers also insisted on dominating the economies of their kingdoms through a system of royal privileges, grants and monopolies they gave to their relatives and allies called  mercantilism. (Without its royal trappings, mercantilism continues to suck the life out of national  economies around the world to this day.)

The Diverse Origins of America’s Colonists

On the European continent, the Treaty of Westphalia ended the Thirty Years War in 1648 and  formalized the longstanding policy that the monarch was empowered to impose the Catholic or  Protestant religion of his choice on all his subjects. He had freedom of faith, they didn’t.  Religious uniformity was the rule, not toleration. People who held faiths different from the king  were given the choice of converting or leaving. Many fled to America. In England, the religious and political upheavals of the Civil War of 1641-51, and the Glorious  Revolution of 1688-9, displaced a large number of Protestant Puritans and royalist Roman  Catholics, who migrated to America. As American historian Frederick Jackson Turner wrote in 1891: Louis XIV devastates the Palatinate, and soon hundreds of its inhabitants are hewing  down the forests of Pennsylvania. The Bishop of Salzburg persecutes his Protestant  subjects, and the woods of Georgia sound to the crack of Teutonic rifles. Presbyterians  are oppressed in Ireland, and soon in Tennessee and Kentucky the fires of pioneers  gleam. These were but advance guards of the mighty army that has poured into our midst  ever since. Every economic change, every political change, every military conscription,  every socialistic agitation in Europe, has sent us groups of colonists…xviii

So the English colonies in America were comprised of a kaleidoscope of people and factions  with very diverse and firmly- held beliefs. Historians of the period estimate that forty percent of  the North American population in 1750 was non-English.xix English Puritans and Baptists had  formed New England. New York inherited a landed class of wealthy Protestant Dutch patroons,  and had attracted merchants, tradesmen, and industrial workers, including a strong cohort of  Sephardic Jews. English Quakers, German Lutherans, and Anabaptists, and a flood of Scots Irish  settled the middle colonies. Maryland had become a haven to Roman Catholics. Virginia  attracted and developed a class of wealthy planters, who brought over indentured servants and  slaves. It also attracted a flood of Scots Irish to Appalachia. South Carolina was founded by  wealthy aristocrats from Barbados in the Caribbean, along with Protestant Huguenots from France. It was the only original colony with a slave majority.

Finding or inventing a single form of government that could tie together such a polyglot  population, and allow them to prosper in harmony and freedom, was an incredible challenge.

The Great Awakening Forges America’s Character   and Begins the American Revolution

When the Declaration of Independence holds it “self-evident” that “all men are created equal,”  we seldom stop to realize what a radical idea this is. In the 18th Century, outside of America,  hardly anyone believed all people are equal. Large parts of the world dispute that idea to this  day. Yet in America there was such a powerful consensus on human equality that the colonies adopted the Declaration, and then ratified a revolutionary new Constitution founded on the idea  that “We the people” are not only equal, but entitled to govern ourselves. What made America so  exceptional?

Human equality is a Christian idea.

In parables like the Sheep and the Goats,xx or the rich man and Lazarus,xxi Jesus taught that a day of judgment is coming when every individual will be  judged by the same standard, according to his or her actions in this life. With his “Render unto  Caesar what is Caesar’s and unto God what is God’s,”xxii Jesus also taught that faith and  government are two separate spheres. Yet the distinction between church and state had been  contested in the West since the 4th century, with the state nearly always prevailing. Statecontrolled churches spoke with the combined authority of God and King. They taught that God  has divided society into static “natural orders” comprised of the monarch, the aristocracy, the  Church, and the people, with the members of each social class owing due deference to their  “betters.” Yet by the time of the Revolutionary War, Americans had rejected those ideas  completely. How did that happen? Looking back years later, John Adams wrote “What do we mean by the American Revolution?  The war? That was no part of the Revolution: it was only an effect and consequence of it. The  Revolution was in the minds of the people…a change in their religious sentiments.”xxiii

The turning point had occurred in the 1730s and 40s when a firestorm of Christian revival, later  called The First Great Awakening, swept through the American colonies. The Great Awakening  was a historically verifiable outpouring of the Holy Spirit that forged a new soul and character  for the American people. It was the true beginning of the American Revolution.

The Great Awakening decisively ended the dominance of the established churches in colonial  America. In the northern and middle colonies it largely erased the social stratification that had  been imported from Europe. It was a powerful, shared experience that united thirteen very  different colonies into a single nation. It also ignited America’s distinctive enthusiasm for mass  education as the key to prosperity and social advancement. And finally, the new spirit of equality  fostered by the Great Awakening led the founding fathers to divide America’s new government  by function into executive, legislative and judicial branches, rather than basing it on a British  style balance of powers between the “natural orders” of king, elite and commoners.

Jonathan Edwards

The first public evidence that something extraordinary was occurring was recorded in the  ministry of Jonathan Edwards, the Yale-educated Congregational minister who was president of  Princeton University. Edwards demonstrated that the Bible teaches that all men are created equal  and the true value of a man lies in his moral behavior and not his class.xxiv Drawing on Jesus’  dialogue with Nicodemus in the third chapter of John’s Gospel, he stressed that all men can be  saved, but everyone must make a profession of their personal belief in God, and be “born again.”  Good works alone couldn’t secure salvation. Complete repentance and reliance on God’s grace  was the only way.
As historian Paul Johnson writes, in his books, Edwards “developed an entirely new gloss on the  harsh old Calvinist doctrine of Redemption by stressing that God did not just choose some, and  not others, but, as it were, radiated his own goodness and beauty into the souls of men and  women so that they became part of him.”xxv The core of his message is that love is the essence of  the religious experience.xxvi “Through this doctrine of love, Edwards proceeds to liberate the  human will…insisting that human beings are free because they act according to their perception  and conviction of their own good.”xxvii Johnson writes, “Here was indeed a frontier religion, for  persons of all creeds and backgrounds and ethnic origins, native-born Americans and the new  arrivals from Europe, united by the desire to do good, lead useful and godly lives, and help  others to do the same in the new and splendid country divine providence had given them.”xxviii

Jonathan Edwards may have been a brilliant polymath, but his preaching was anything but  exciting. He read his sermons in a relentless monotone, with his eyes firmly planted on the back  of the church.xxix So it wasn’t his delivery that caused the lightening to strike in 1734, when the  Spirit suddenly fell on a congregation Edwards was preaching to in Northampton, Massachusetts. No one was more astonished than the preacher himself.xxx As he reported in a 1737 treatise,  Narrative of Surprising Conversions, “And then it was, in the latter part of December, that the  Spirit of God began extraordinarily to…work among us. There were very suddenly, one after  another, five or six persons who were, to all appearance, savingly converted, and in some of  them wrought upon in a very remarkable manner…God made it, I suppose, the greatest occasion  of awakening to others of anything that ever came to pass in the town…The news of it seemed to  be almost like a flash of lightning upon the hearts of young people all over the town, and upon  many others.”xxxi  This was followed by similar dramatic conversions in Edwards’ own parish.  Then the “New Light” began to fall in South Hadley, in Suffield, Sunderland, Deerfield,  Hatfield, West Springfield, Long Meadow, Enfield, Westfield, and Northfield—all of which  Edwards recorded and published. xxxii

George Whitefield

Edward’s sermons and books were avidly read in evangelical circles in both America and  England. News of the outpouring in Massachusetts reached particularly attentive ears in Georgia,  where two young Anglican ministers from England, John Wesley and George Whitefield, were  helping General James Oglethorpe evangelize the colonists and Indians in the years 1735-8.  Wesley, who had a particular heart for the poor, was to return to England, where he had his  famous experience of the assurance of his salvation on Alders gate Street, London, and became  one of the greatest preachers of the 18th Century.xxxiii

Whitefield, on the other hand, was a rhetorical and histrionic star of spectacular gifts, who felt  called to preach in America.xxxiv His preaching had already ignited miraculous revivals in  England. “Before long, it seemed that all Georgia was vibrating to the deep, resonant, farcarrying tones of the remarkable ‘boy preacher,’ who had the ability to capture the hearts as well  as the minds of his listeners.”xxxv

Paul Johnson writes that Whitefield “simply carried a torch and used it to set alight  multitudes…In 1740 he made the first continental tour of the colonies, from Savannah in  Georgia to Boston in the north, igniting violent sheets of religious flame everywhere. It was  Whitefield, the Grand Itinerant, as he was known, who caused the Great Awakening to take  off…He seems to have appealed equally to conventional Anglicans, fierce Calvinists, German  pietists, Scotch-Irish, Dutch, even a few Catholics. A German woman who heard him said she  had never been so edified in her life, though she spoke not a word of English.”xxxvi Whitefield  had an unusually deep and loud voice, which was crucial to his ability to reach large crowds  outdoors, where he often preached. He attracted audiences of between two and twenty thousand  wherever he went.
When Whitefield moved on, as he always did, other ministers followed through on his meetings  and continued to minister to the newly converted. Not surprisingly, the established churches did  not all embrace this “New Light,” especially when it questioned the authority of ministers who  had not undergone a personal conversion experience. But other ministers who went to  Whitefield’s meetings heard God himself in what he said, and no less than twenty ministers in  Boston openly acknowledged George Whitefield as the instrument of their conversion.xxxvii

Again and again Whitefield returned to the attack. He made seven tours, in every colony, from one end of the continent to the other between 1740 and his death in 1770. Everywhere he went,  revival accompanied him. And those who had been bearing the Light before he arrived,  unanimously welcomed him as an answer to prayer.xxxviii Finally, he arrived in Boston in August,  1770, five months after British troops had fired on a mob of civilians. With his health broken,  Whitefield still spoke to some of the largest crowds of his career. He died at dawn, a month later,  in Newburyport, Massachusetts, the day after his final sermon—which had lasted nearly two  hours.
Altogether George Whitefield had preached eighteen thousand sermons between 1736 and  1770.xxxix The movement he led literally forged the American character and began the American  Revolution.

Three legacies of the first Great Awakening are worth summarizing briefly.

Americans Move Decisively from Established Churches to Independent Sects

In ancient Rome, showing reverence to the established national gods was considered essential to  social cohesion. A key part of the job of Roman Emperor was to serve as the Pontifix Maximus,  the chief priest of the national cult. Roman citizens were expected to burn incense, and make  sacrifices and oblations to the gods and deified emperors as an essential mark of patriotism because there was no other universal unifying principle to hold that society together. Observance  of the outward ceremony was much more important than the inward belief of the citizen. In the  Roman Empire, Christians were persecuted as “atheists” because they firmly believed there was  only one God, and therefore they refused to honor the traditional gods and deified emperors.  When the Roman Emperor Constantine ended the persecution of Christians and legalized  Christianity in 313 AD, he considered it natural to play the role of Pontifix Maximus in the new  religion that he believed had made him emperor. Even before he was baptized, Constantine made  himself the head of the Church. He showered the Church with subsidies and buildings. He began  appointing bishops and calling Church Councils that he then presided over. Over time millions of  Romans became “Christians” because it was the new patriotic thing to do, rather than through a  change of heart.
Thus began the tragic history of the established Churches of Europe, ”headed” by their kings.  Since the 4th century, confusion has reined in Europe over what should be rendered to Caesar and  what to God. The Great Awakening clarified those issues for Americans, and made them into a  new and separate people.
Before the Revolution tax-supported churches were established in most North American colonies  on the European model.xl The Church of England was established in southern and some middle  colonies, while the Congregational Church was established in New England. Even after the  Constitution was ratified, seven of the new states retained tax-supported churches.xli

Established churches intermixed the roles of church and state. They were important social and  political tools for the government. Church offices were highly prized government patronage jobs.  The people viewed their membership in the tax-supported church as something they were born  into as subjects of the king or citizens of New England. Attendance was as much a patriotic  gesture as an expression of personal belief. The Church of England presented the policies of the  king as the will of God. Conflating the policy of the monarch with the will of God left little room for individual discretion. The king’s loyal subjects were expected to follow both the theological  and political guidance of this central social institution. But in America this theory broke down. In the middle colonies there were too few clergy to serve  the growing population. And those they had tended to be trained in England, out of touch with  their people, and not sufficiently emotional for their taste.xlii

The Great Awakening’s “New Light” of Bible study, personal salvation, personal piety and  social equality caused thousands of established church members to leave the churches of their  birth and join the Baptists, Methodists, Quakers, Moravians, and dozens of other new sects that  were emerging. While Americans today think nothing of changing churches or denominations, it’s easy to  overlook the fact that that in the 18th century, leaving the Church of England was an explicit act  of spiritual and social rebellion against the king and his Church. While they were still political  “subjects” of the king, the Americans who left the churches they were born into had taken  personal responsibility for their spiritual lives. Once they had made that decision, it would be  only a small step to take control of their political destinies as well.

Awakening the Sense of Being “American”

Before the Great Awakening, each North American colony had been a little self-contained world  of its own, with its outward links running chiefly to London. As Paul Johnson writes, “The Great  Awakening altered this separateness. It taught different colonies, tidewaters and piedmonts, coast  and up-country, to grasp and appreciate what they had in common, which was a very great  deal.”xliii
George Whitefield’s “New Light” preaching tours were the first intercolonial events that  generated exciting news in every colony that was of intense interest in the others. The “media  entrepreneur” who first recognized and exploited this opportunity was Benjamin Franklin. Franklin, then in his thirties, became a lifelong friend and supporter of Whitefield. He didn’t  subscribe to Whitefield’s theology, but he admired Whitefield for exhorting people to worship  God through good works. Franklin printed Whitefield’s sermons on the front page of his Gazette,  devoting 45 issues to Whitefield’s sermons and journals. Fully half of Franklin’s publications in  1739-1741 were of Whitefield.xliv This helped promote the evangelical movement in America,  and helped Franklin become independently wealthy. He eventually was able to sell his  newspaper to an investor and lived comfortably off the proceeds for the rest of his long and  enormously productive life.

The Launch of America’s Distinctive Faith in Mass Education

One of the key pillars of American exceptionalism to this day is our society’s strong belief in  mass education and literacy as essential foundations for social advancement and national  prosperity. This is another key American trait that can be traced directly to the theology of the  Great Awakening and the competition between the various new Christian sects that grew out of it. The “New Lights” taught that salvation did not result from birth, but by making a personal  commitment of faith in God. Since every believer had to work out his or her own salvation, that  meant that at a minimum, seekers had to be able to read the Bible for themselves. So after the  Great Awakening, providing basic literacy to all citizens became a high priority in America. This commitment to mass education is exemplified by the crucial Northwest Ordinance of 1787,  which was enacted by Congress as the Constitutional Convention was in progress, and in  coordination with it. In that statute, the First Congress clearly expressed their recognition of the  essential interrelationship between education and religion in American life: Article 3: Religion, morality, and knowledge being necessary to good government and  the happiness of mankind, schools and means of education  shall forever be  encouraged.xlv

Once basic literacy was secured in America, the demand naturally grew for higher education to  equip qualified teachers and ministers to help believers to grow into Christian maturity. And  since the new American sects that had emerged couldn’t train such people in England, they each  had to establish their own colleges. Here was another distinctive American solution. As historian  Daniel Boorstin points out, while the established Church of England was able to prevent  dissenting academies from granting degrees in that country,

In America the school of every sect arrogated the dignity of an ancient European  university. By the time of the Revolution nearly every major Christian sect had an  institution of its own: New-Side Presbyterians founded Princeton; revivalist Baptists  founded Brown; Dutch Reformed revivalist founded Rutgers; a Congregational minister  transformed an Indian missionary school into Dartmouth; and Anglicans and Presbyterians  worked together in the founding of King’s College (later Columbia) and the College of  Philadelphia (later the university of Pennsylvania)…

Between 1746 and 1769, twice as many colleges were founded in the colonies as in the  previous hundred years; between 1769 and 1789 twice as many again as in the preceding  twenty years. And so it went. The movement gathered momentum, and seems hardly yet to  have stopped.xlvi

And then market-driven reality stepped in to provide still another distinctive trait of American  exceptionalism. The need to attract tuition-paying students for all these new sectarian institutions prevented them from discriminating against students from other sects. Daniel Boorstin writes, No American college during the colonial period imposed a religious test on its entering  students. Thus, a nonsectarianism, which was not the product of an abstract theory of  toleration, became an ideal of American higher education…The proliferation of sects and  the growth of religious enthusiasm in 18th Century America had produced an unpredicted  and unplanned (often undesired) religious tolerance. Where every sect lacked power to  coerce, they all wisely “chose” to persuade.xlvii

Thanks to the Great Awakening nearly all Americans accepted that all men are created equal.  The circumstances of a person’s birth neither automatically conferred nor prevented their  advancement in life. The question naturally followed, ‘How can I get ahead?’ The characteristic  American answer has always been: education, pluck, and hard work.
i Paul Johnson, A History of the American People, Harper Collins, NY, 1997, pg 24

ii W. Cleon Skousen, The Five Thousand Year Leap, American Documents Publishing, Franklin,  TN  2009, Forward by Glenn Beck, pg 2

iii Bruce, Phillip. Economic History of Virginia in the Seventeenth Century, page 212   (Amazon: http://www.amazon.com/exec/obidos/tg/detail/-/0844610917/lewrockwell/)

iv Warren Billings, ed., The Old Dominion in the Seventeenth Century: A Documentary History  of Virginia, 1606-1689.)  (Amazon: http://www.amazon.com/exec/obidos/tg/detail/-/0807812374/lewrockwell/)

v Bethell, Tom. The Noblest Triumph: Property and Prosperity through the Ages)  (Amazon: http://www.amazon.com/exec/obidos/tg/detail/-/0312223374/lewrockwell/)

vi Skousen, pg 3

vii Johnson, pg 26

viii Johnson, pg 27

ix Johnson, pg 29

x Johnson, ibid

xi Johnson, pg 30

xii Johnson, ibid

xiii “Even the Pilgrims Couldn’t Make it Work”, The Powell Center for Economic Literacy, July  6, 2006. http://www.powellcenter.org/uploads/PilgrimsU.pdf
xiv John Stossel, “The Tragedy of the Commons”, RealClearPolitics.com, November 21, 2007.  http://www.realclearpolitics.com/articles/2007/11/the_tragedy_of_the_commons.html xv(http://www.powellcenter.org/uploads/fall02/pdf/middleh1.pdf)  (Bradford, William. Of Plymouth Plantation) xvi(http://www.powellcenter.org/uploads/fall02/pdf/middleh1.pdf)  (Bradford, William. Of Plymouth Plantation, pages 120-121)

xvii (John Stossel, “The Tragedy of the Commons”, RealClearPolitics.com, November 21, 2007.  http://www.realclearpolitics.com/articles/2007/11/the_tragedy_of_the_commons.html)

xviii Rereading Frederick Jackson Turner, “The Significance of the Frontier in American  History,” and other essays, Yale University Press, New Haven, 1994, pg 27

xix Peter C. Mancall, University of Southern California, Origins and Ideologies of the American  Revolution, Part One, The Teaching Company, 2006

xx Matthew 25: 31-46

xxi Luke 16:19-31

xxii Matthew 22:21

xxiii John Adams, letter to Hezekiah Niles, 1818, Bernard Bailyn, The Ideological Origins of the  American Revolution (Cambridge: Harvard university Press, 1992) pg 1; cited by Dinesh  D’Souza, What’s So Great About Christianity, Regnery Publishing, Inc., Washington, DC, 2007,  pg 72

xxiv Bailyn, Bernard. The Ideological Origins of the American Revolution. Harvard University  Press, 1992, pg 303

xxv Paul Johnson, A History of the American People, HarperCollins, New York, 1997, pg 111

xxvi Johnson, pg 112

xxvii Ibid

xxviii Johnson, pg 112

xxix Peter Marshall and David Manuel, The Light and the Glory, Fleming H. Revell, Grand  Rapids, MI, 1977, pg 241

xxx Marshall and Manuel, pg 241

xxxi ibid, pg 242

xxxii ibid, pg 243

xxxiii Johnson, pg 113

xxxiv ibid

xxxv Marshall and Manuel, pg 244

xxxvi Johnson, pg 113

xxxvii Marshall and Manuel, pg 249

xxxviii ibid, pg 247

xxxix ibid, pgs 252, 253

xl Kelly Olds, Privatizing the Church, Disestablishment in Connecticut and Massachusetts,  Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago, April, 1994, pg 277

xli W. Cleon Skousen, The Five Thousand Year Leap, American Documents Publishing,  Franklin, TN  2009, pg 67

xlii Professor Darren Staloff, City College of New York, The History of the United States, Part II,  The Teaching Company. 1998, Lecture 14

xliii Johnson, pg 116

xliv Isaacson, Walter. Benjamin Franklin, An American Life. Simon & Schuster 2003, p.110,  112,113

xlv Skousen, pg 59

xlvi Daniel J. Boorstin, The Americans, The Colonial Experience; Vintage Books, New York,  1958, pg 179

xlvii Boorstin, pg 180